Few insects create a sense of wonder in people of all ages as do butterflies. We provide charts for common and unusual North American butterflies and moths. The butterflies featured in our charts come from private and museum collections. These insects are photographed after being pinned, spread and dried. This procedure ensures that as much of the wing surfaces are visible as possible while sacrificing natural positioning. We photograph dorsal (front) and ventral (back) sides of the butterflies because the coloration pattern on the two sides is almost always different. This difference allows the butterfly, for example, to flash danger and mating signals by showing one surface, and use the other for camoflauge. We provide charts for both dorsal and ventral surfaces. Both wing surfaces are used by entomologists to identify the butterfly to species. Many butterfly species exhibit sexual dimorphism, which means that the male and female have different colors and patterns on one or both wing surfaces. In these cases, we provide front and back charts for each gender.